Factbox: How U.S. sanctions could hit Russia’s Nord Stream gas project
26 Dec 2019

U.S. President Donald Trump imposed sanctions last week on the Nord Stream 2 pipeline designed by Moscow to bypass Ukraine and increase gas supplies via the Baltic Sea to Germany, Russia’s biggest energy customer.

The United States wants to sell more of its gas to Europe and has said the pipeline would make the continent too reliant on Russia, which is at loggerheads with Washington over a series of issues, including Moscow’s interference in Ukraine.

Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, however, said on Monday that the pipeline would be completed in a matter of months despite the U.S. sanctions.

Following is an explanation of why Washington’s move may have come too late:


Nord Stream 1 has been supplying Russian gas to Europe since 2011 down two adjacent pipelines each 1,224 km (761 miles) long with a combined capacity of 55 billion cubic meters (bcm).

Construction Nord Steam 2 started in 2018. It too will have twin pipelines with a combined length of 2,460 km and capacity of 55 bcm, enough to provide power to 26 million of households.

Nord Stream 2 has the green light from all the relevant European countries and all that remains to be completed is a 160 km stretch near the Danish island of Bornholm.

Before Washington announced sanctions on the companies building Nord Stream 2, Russian officials had said it would be up and running before or around the middle of 2020.


Swiss-Dutch company Allseas, which was laying the pipeline using two vessels – Pioneering Spirit and Solitaire – suspended work to avoid U.S. sanctions. Allseas was expected to lay 96% of all the pipes needed for Nord Stream 2.

According to Refinitiv Eikon data, the two vessels are now on course for the port of Mukran on the German island of Rügen, where the pipe sections ready to be laid are stored.

Pioneering Spirit can lay pipes at an average speed of 5 km a day, meaning it would have finished the project in about a month if not for the U.S. sanctions.

Saipem’s vessels Castoro Sei and Castoro Dieci have also taken part in laying pipes but they are not working on the project at the moment.


In 2016, Gazprom bought a special pipe-laying vessel called Academic Cherskiy to be used as a last resort if European companies stopped working on Nord Stream 2.

A Gazprom source said Cherskiy’s average pipe-laying speed is slower than the Pioneering Spirit but did not provide a specific estimate. According to Refinitiv Eikon data, Cherskiy is currently based in the Russian Pacific port of Nakhodka.

By Vladimir Soldatkin, Maria Grabar and Natalia Chumakova, Reuters, 24 December 2019

Read more at Reuters

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